CAS No.: 75-05-8
EC No.: 200-835-2
EC / List name: Acetonitrile
Acetonitrile, also called methyl cyanide, is the simplest organic nitrile, miscible with water, methanol, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, acetone, ether, acetamide solutions, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, ethylene chloride and many unsaturated hydrocarbons. Immiscible with many saturated hydrocarbons (petroleum fractions).
It can be obtained by dehydration of an acetic acid and ammonia mixture or by the reaction of ethanol and ammonia in the presence of catalyst at moderate temperatures as well as a by-product of acrylonitrile synthesis. Acetonitrile is also produced by the reaction of cyanogen chloride with methane, ketones, ethanol, alkylene epoxides, and paraffins (or olefins). Its primary use is as an extraction solvent for unsaturated hydrocarbons (especially butadiene) and as a general purpose solvent for many compounds including fatty acids and oils based on its selective miscibility.
|Product name||Appearance||Assay, %, no less than||Mass fraction of water (Max.), %||Specification|
|Acetonitrile technical||Clear colourless liquid||98.8||0,2||Technical grade|
|Acetonitrile (99.3%)||Clear colourless liquid||99.3||0,1||Pharma grade|
|Acetonitrile (99.9%)||Clear colourless liquid||99.9||0,05||Pure grade|
Organic nitriles act as solvents and are reacted further for various application including:
- Extraction solvent for fatty acids, oils and unsaturated hydrocarbons
- Solvent for spinning and casting and extractive distillation based on its selective miscibility with organic compounds.
- Removing agent of colouring matters and aromatic alcohol
- Non-aqueous solvent for titrations and for inorganic salt
- Recrystallization of steroid
- Parent compound for organic synthesis
- Solvent or chemical intermediate in biochemistry ( pesticide sequencing and DNA synthesis)
- High-pressure liquid chromatographic analysis
- Catalyst and component of transition-metal complex catalysts
- Stabilizer for chlorinated solvents
- Chemical intermediate and solvent for perfumes and pharmaceuticals